Give refugees a chance – Liverpool star Dejan Lovren

By  for The Guardian

lovren-455128In a new documentary, the Liverpool defender opens up about being forced out of his childhood home during the Balkans conflict, losing a member of his family and then being asked to leave Germany and settle in Croatia. There is only one moment, recounting the horrors that shaped his childhood and life as a refugee from the Bosnian war, when it all seems like it might be too difficult for Dejan Lovren to continue.

Lovren is telling the story of how he and his family had to flee their home in Kraljeva Sutjeska, the village where he grew up outside Zenica, and what happened to those who were left behind. “Zenica was attacked because it was a bigger city,” the Liverpool player explains, “but it was in these small villages where the most horrific things happened …people being brutally killed. My uncle’s brother was killed in front of other people with a knife. I never talk about my uncle because it’s quite a tough thing to talk about, but he lost his brother, one of my family members. Difficult …”

It is a remarkable piece of television, courtesy of LFC TV, and rare to see a Premier League footballer speak of such jarring memories on a club’s own TV channel. Lovren was only three years old when the civil war broke out that finished with more than 100,000 deaths. “We had everything, to be honest,” he says of their life before that point. “We never had problems. Everything went well with the neighbours – with the Muslims, with the Serbs, everyone was talking very well between each other and enjoying the life, everything was how they wanted. And then it [the war] happened.

“I wish I could explain everything but nobody knows the real truth. It just happened. It just changed through the night – war between everyone, three different cultures. People just changed. I just remember the sirens went on. I was so scared because I was thinking “bombs”. I remember my mum took me and we went to the basement, I don’t know how long we’d been sitting there, I think it was until the sirens went off. Afterwards, I remember mum, my uncle, my uncle’s wife, we took the car and then we were driving to Germany. We left everything – the house, the little shop with the food they had, they left it. They took one bag and ‘let’s go to Germany’.”

dejan-lovren

Lovren in action for Liverpool F.C in the EPL last season

His family have since told him the 500-mile journey to Munich took 17 hours, not least because of all the security stops.

“We had luck. Me and my family, we had luck. Our granddad was working in Germany and because of that he had the papers. If not, I don’t know what we could have done. Maybe I could see my parents and me under the ground. I don’t know what could’ve happened. One of my best friends in my high school – his dad was a soldier – and I remember he was crying every day. I was thinking: ‘Why?’ And he said: ‘My dad died.’ So, you know, it could have been my dad.”

In the documentary, Lovren – My Life as a Refugee, he goes on to recall how after seven years in Germany his family was told they had to leave the country they had come to think of as home. “My mum and dad were asking for permission to stay more but every six months it was declined.

The authorities said: ‘When the war is over, then you can go back.’ So every six months my mum and dad had their bags packed to go back. It was quite tough – you never had a future in Germany.

“Then that day came and they said: ‘You have two months to prepare your bags and go back.’ For me it was difficult because I had all of my friends in Germany, my life had started there. I had everything, I was happy, I was playing in a little club, my father was the coach – it was just beautiful. My mum said: ‘Germany is our second home’ and it’s true. Germany gave us their open hands. I don’t know which country could have done that, at that time, to welcome refugees from Bosnia.”

The Lovren family moved to Croatia where a boy with a German accent was picked on at school and the parents struggled for money. “My mum was working in Walmart for €350 per month, about £280. My father was working as a house painter. We had a difficult situation with money. My mum said: ‘We cannot pay the bills for electricity, for everything,’ and for a week we didn’t have money.

“I remember my dad took my ice skates. One day I asked my mum: ‘Where are my ice skates?’ because I loved to skate in the winter. And she said through tears: ‘Dad is selling them now … we don’t have money for this week.’ I swear this is the point in my life that I said: ‘I don’t want to hear this any more.’ He sold them for 350 Kuna, it’s about £40. My ice-skates: sold. It was a tough time for my parents.”

Speaking about these years is not easy, especially when Lovren’s own family do not always wish for it to be discussed. “It’s like the war happened yesterday. It’s quite a sensitive thing to talk about, so people still avoid talking about it – it’s sad. Mum said to me [before the documentary]: ‘Don’t tell them,’ and I said: ‘I will tell them.’ And she was crying again. It’s always sensitive to speak about. She remembers everything.

“I hope for the next generation that it’ll be much easier, for my daughter and my son, maybe they’ll forget it and move on. I don’t know if they’ll ever understand my life or my situation, what I’ve been through, because they live in totally different worlds. If my little girl wants a toy, sometimes I say: ‘I don’t have the money.’ It’s quite difficult to understand why I’m saying that but she needs to understand that nothing comes easy. I’m working hard for her so she needs to understand you don’t need 20 toys, sometimes you need just one or two and you’re still happy – it’s about other things.

“When I see what’s happening today [with refugees] I just remember my thing, my family and how people don’t want you in their country. I understand people want to protect themselves, but people don’t have homes. It’s not their fault; they’re fighting for their lives just to save their kids. They want a secure place for their kids and their futures. I went through all this and I know what some families are going through. Give them a chance, give them a chance. You can see who the good people are and who are not.”

Watch the full documentary now, for free, on LFCTV GO

Copping with job loss: a first-hand experience

BY ALEX TAREMWA

Losing a job is probably the most heart-rending thing anyone should endure. If it doesn’t break your spirit, it will – like in CHRIS MUGASHA’s case leave you with a tale to tell.

After eight years of ‘hard-work’ as a sales executive of an insurance company, Chris Mugasha, 39, was discharged indefinitely for alleged sexual harassment.

Mugasha remembers being summoned for an urgent meeting on a Wednesday morning of May 25, 2016 only to be lectured about how ‘reckless’ he had been.

He was then sent on forced leave – more like a suspension really – to pave way for further investigations after which he was permanently sacked.

In a wink, the once powerful salesman covering West and South Western Uganda went from employed to jobless.fired-642x336

All he had – after the four hours he was given to clean his desk –  was a laptop bag, a pack of business cards, three books and a golf cap.

Although Mugasha admits to having had a sexual relationship with a co-worker contrary to his terms of employment, he maintains that the manner in which he was dismissed was not only disgraceful but also illegal.

“They organized kangaroo panel to try me. They didn’t even give me time to respond to the allegations. Even after they sent me on leave, they seized paying me and after I was publicly fired, my benefits and allowances were withheld,” he narrates.

What was perhaps the more perturbing is that the lady with whom Mugasha was having [sic] an ‘inappropriate sexual affair’, was one of the committee members trying him.

This, to him, was the most hypocritical thing he had ever witnessed. His letter of dismissal, a copy of which TTM has seen, reads that Mugasha was dismissed for sexual harassment on a fellow staff and inappropriate behaviour.

“You see I don’t deny having had an affair but I didn’t have it with myself. I don’t understand why she was exonerated, later on allowed to even take a stand not to testify but to prosecute me,” he says.

The organisation did not stop there. It went to further to publish his picture in the newspapers warning the public as he (Mugasha) was no longer its employee asserting that he should be dealt with at one’s own risk.

Despite the cited conflict of interest and arguably unfair dismissal, he decided not to sue. Asked why, he says he neither had the strength not the money to fight back.

“I no longer had an income. If I was to sue, I would have to use my life savings to fight a battle that could go both ways so I decided to divert my frustrations elsewhere.”

Luckily or unluckily enough, Mugasha is not married – at least not yet. He however has a cohort of dependents, mostly school going siblings who have suffered effects of his lack of an income.

They did not only have to change to third-class schools that he could afford, they also had to leave the boarding section to the more affordable day-school section, a change that affected their academic performance.

Previously, Mugasha who rented a two-bedroomed self-contained apartment in upscale Ntinda at shs750,000 had to shift to a modest one-bedroom rental in Kisaasi, in the outskirts of Kampala where he pays rent of shs250,000.

This is not the only thing that changed about Mugasha’s lifestyle. He also had to sell off his Toyota Mark II to meet financial demands.

Like the former Apple founder Steve Jobs (RIP) described his dismissal from the tech giant in a commemoration speech to graduates at Stanford University back in 2005, it was “an awfully tasting medicine.”

Although Jobs later returned to Apple, it is unclear whether Mugasha will have a similar opportunity and even if he did, he would most likely turn it down owing to his life’s recent turn-around.

SILVER LINING APPEARS

firedFor a man of his experience, Mugasha has gotten a number of job offers since his dismissal.

He has however been reluctant to take up any opting for more relaxed consultancy work.

Together with his two of partners Joshua Wadada and Sheila Ngabo, Mugasha is finalising plans to register their firm CK Consults in a bid to formalise operations.

“We have been doing some trainings for organisations already but the big companies want to deal with registered, formal and organized people who pay their taxes so we want to move a step ahead,” he says.

Stress, they say, is the fertiliser of creativity and Mugasha is certainly proof of this assertion.

Besides his consultancy work, he opened up a retail shop in which he sells groceries and other household supplies to keep financially afloat.

EXPERTS WEIGH-IN:

According to Connie Musisi, the Career Development and Placement Officer at Uganda Christian University (UCU), an employee goes through five emotional stages following a job loss.

These stages include: denial, inner self-criticism, withdrawal, reflection and acceptance.

“You’ve known for months that it’s over but you cling to the hope that it was a mistake. After all, you have been with the company for many years. You have produced great results. The company can’t survive without you. You’re living in denial,” says Musisi.

Musisi advises that the earlier someone recognises the different stages, the quicker they move through them lest they waste valuable time languishing for weeks yet they still have to face the arduous task of conducting a tough job search with all its inherent frustrations.

After a job loss, Musisi urges victims to open up to family and friends, keep regular work plan and sustain the momentum to necessary for success in the job search.

When one no longer has a job to report to every day, she says, they can easily lose motivation. Therefore, one has to treat their job search like a job with regular times for exercise and networking. This helps one remain more efficient and productive.

“Don’t let your job search consume you. Make time for fun, rest, and relaxation—whatever revitalises you. Your next plan will be more effective if you are mentally, emotionally, and physically at your best,” Musisi adds.

Mugasha acknowledges undergoing the emotional stages but he offers a different remedy to the nightmare of job loss.

For him, it is always about people and one’s relationship with them that makes all the difference. Had he not had a supportive family and a good network to begin his next life charter with, he would still be crying over what he calls ‘split milk.’

“Network like crazy. Whenever you get within three feet of someone, engage them in a conversation and find a way to help each other. You’ll be amazed at how resourceful people are,” he says.

In spite of how hard a knock that losing a job is, it can be overcome with hard work and persistence.

With the combination of the two, Mugasha is confident that anyone will come out of recession saying that losing his job was the best thing that ever happened to them. Mugasha may regret having had a sexual affair with a co-worker but what he doesn’t regret is losing his job. It only validated the Luganda proverb that “akugoba yakulaga ekubo.”

alex.taremwa@yahoo.co.uk

 

 

Would you inherit that widow?

BY ALEX TAREMWA

As I approach her home, dogs bark in unison. A dog keeper myself, I gather that there must be three of them in the compound. She emerges from the garden with muddy feet, offers me a stool and takes her rest on the mat.

Margaret Kiwumulo was happily married to Richard Kaijuka and together they had produced two children until the night of July 4, 2002, when unknown assailants ambushed him as he left his bar for home, beat him to death and took his belongings.

Stuck with two children, Kiwumulo, then 27 – but currently 41 – struggled to fend for them as a single mother until Kaijuka’s brother Peter Ziryabareeta, a veterinary doctor stepped in to help.44_10155_d12s

He gave the family a much needed boost, gave the children a father figure and eventually, to the widow, he gave a husband in spite of the fact that he already had a family of his own.

Besides the children Ziryabareeta ‘inherited’, he has been able to father two more with Kiwumulo and she was vividly pregnant when TTM met her for an interview.

The case of Kiwumulo and Ziryabareeta is not unique, especially in the African context. It is a tradition that has seen days since the 1800s – fueled partly by culture with traces visible in Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Sudan, Uganda and the rest of Sub-Sahara.

The arrangement, known as widow inheritance, allows for a male relative of the deceased to take over the guardianship of the deceased’s family, including the widow so that the deceased’s inherited property stays in the family.

In some clans, it is not subject to debate while in others, the widow has a say in whether or not she needs the stewardship and chooses the suitor among the kinsmen of the deceased husband.

The practice has however come under heavy criticism from politicians, clerics, civil society movements and “molarity protectors” who argue that widow inheritance has not only taken away widow’s rights to make independent decisions, it has also kept HIV/AIDS prevalence on a high.

With the coming of modernity and civilisation, the practice has lost popularity with most men rubbing it off as uncouth – a practical example of cultural practices that should be condemned by every right thinking members of society.

Given the intricacies of today’s world, Roggers Akanyijuka, a Visual Editor and Producer at Vision Group said he would not, for any reason accept to inherit a widow. This, he added, not only increases the financial burden he has to carry but also shoulders him more family obligations that consume his much needed time.

“It is an ancient mind-set. In today’s life circumstances, it is very inapplicable and not worthy of thought,” he told TTM.

Indeed, men who already have financial obligations of their own may not be open to widening them by inheriting more, unless of course there is something to gain.

As Suleiman Tiguragara Matojo Ssalongo, a veteran journalist and Resident District Commissioner (RDC) of Lyantonde district explained, the practice was/is exploited by men, often seeking to “cheat” widows out of land, cattle and other properties left by the deceased.

Widows, he argued, often shackled by poverty, have continued to rely on inheritors to take care of them as a fulfillment of cultural obligations not knowing that their vulnerability is being exploited.

“Our senior citizens (elders) had their issues in the past. When a husband died midway the marriage, the widow, due to fear of losing all the property he left, would accept to marry one of his kinsmen,” he said.

Because some of the widows would have had children with their deceased husbands reducing their odds to compete in a market filled with single, educated, independent women, being inherited becomes better option to consider.

Bad cultural practice or just bad timing?

Although this writer could not accurately quantify the percentage of the prevalence of widow inheritance in Uganda, a survey he conducted portrayed how just unpopular the practice is in 21st century.

Of the 20 respondents he reached out in preparation of this article, all said they would not, whether wilfully or otherwise, inherit a widow although most indicated that they may be willing to help take care of the children, if any.

Does this mean that widow inheritance is a barbaric cultural practice or has it been merely overtaken by events?

When TTM passed this question to 67-year-old Richard Bahaburana, an opinion leader among the Bashambo, one of the largest clans in the defunct Ankole Kingdom, he had this to say: “We would be fools to say that everything practiced by Africans must remain so. But we are totally against abandoning our culture.”

He added that: “It (widow inheritance) was the tradition here. We are all supposed to do it. Church leaders don’t like it. The president may not like it. But it is our tradition.”

Bahaburana, a polygamist with three wives – one inherited – may be wrong about something – say- the president not liking the practice as he (H.E Yoweri Museveni) is not on record on the subject but he is right about church leaders not having kind words for it.

Speaking to TTM via email from the Vatican, Italy, Fr. David Kampiira, born in Kazo, Kiruhura district, argued that “when they become irrelevant as social changes take place, certain cultural practices must be allowed to die out.”

“This is one of the difficult battles to win. We have tried discouraging it but few seem to understand its effects especially in the era of HIV/AIDS. It seems some people are genetically wired to it,” his email response read in part.

Comparatively, in areas where widow inheritance is still secretly practiced, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is higher.

Since an inheritor already has his own family, he infects his first wife and the widow he has inherited. When he dies and men inherit the women he leaves behind. They, too contract the scourge and die and their widows are inherited, hence the increasing number of new HIV infections.

One, then would wonder, if inheriting a widows poses these economic, social and health threats, why is it still silently practiced and seemingly condoned? Logically, it is a matter of opportunity cost. To make a choice, something has to be foregone.

For Ziryabareeta, it was his way to guarantee that his brother’s children get the property their father left them when they are of age and to have them grow knowing they are part of a family, give them a sense of belonging.

“I felt obligated when he (Kaijuka) passed on to carry on his legacy. I didn’t want to see his property get torn to pieces by people who did nothing for it,” he said.

As the case is in most parts of Africa where customary law is still followed, upon a man’s death, his property is inherited by his adult sons. If they are still minors, it is repossessed by his family.

Luckily enough, all the children – including those fathered by Ziryabareeta – are in school. The eldest, whose name we shall not disclose, is already sitting her O-level examinations. She is 17 years.

For Kiwumulo, being inherited was a bitter pill but one she doesn’t regret swallowing. It may not have been the right thing to do but it has turned out to be a good thing in the end.

Ironically, all the men who denounced widow inheritance in the survey were open to the suggestion of having a wife’s sister as a “caretaker” when one lost a wife. In other words, they would rather be inherited but not to inherit.

alex.taremwa@yahoo.co.uk

Janani Luwum: a lion in human skin

On February 16, 1977, a man like no other armed not with a gun or a dagger but the Bible and the cross was assassinated at the then Ugandan ruthless president Idi Amin Dada.

According to historical accounts, the Most Rev Janani Jakaliya Luwum, Archbishop of the Anglican Church in Uganda, Rwanda Burundi, and Boga Zaire had become a sharp critic of the gross atrocities including murders orchestrated by Idi Amin.

On the day of his demise, it is said that Luwum met with President Idi Amin who accused him of smuggling arms and other “subversive acts” before being driven away with two government ministers, Erinayo Wilson Oryema and Charles Oboth Ofumbi in a Land Rover. On the morning of February 17, 1977, Radio Uganda announced that the archbishop had died in a car accident as he attempted to escape and in his flight was involved in a car accident that resulted in his death.

This theory would be later refuted after his body was found riddled with bullets only planted in a fake car crash allegedly on the orders of the president.

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Rt. Rev. Janan Luwum(L) with the Inspector General of Police, Oryema standing by the car which was presented to the Bishop on February 25, 1969. Credit: The New Vision/Files

A planned funeral service for the following Sunday was forbidden by the government, and the Archbishop’s body was not released. Nevertheless, according to records The Standard has seen, about 4,500 people gathered at St Paul’s Cathedral on Namirembe Hill, and a funeral service was held albeit his body missing.

It is at this exact venue (St Paul’s Cathedral) that activities to mark the 40th anniversary of the commemoration of slain martyr will be launched on February 5, 2017. According to a Church of Uganda statement, the activities will be a precursor for the main event that will be held at Mucwini, Kitgum District, the burial ground for deceased, 22km north of Kitgum in northern Uganda.

The purpose of the Kampala event is to create public awareness about the martyrdom of Archbishop Janani Luwum as we plan for the main event but also to enable and allow those who cannot make it to Mucwini to celebrate it in Kampala,” the statement, largely attributed to the Archbishop Stanley Ntagali partly reads.

The activities, which will include a walk from five different centres in and around Kampala, will be followed by a service at St Paul’s Cathedral Namirembe where the body of Janani Luwum was meant to have been buried.

The guest of honour for the Kampala celebrations is the Rt. Hon Ruhakana Rugunda, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uganda, while the main celebrations in Kitgum are expected to be graced by the President of the Republic of Uganda, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni.

Road to martyrdom

Archbishop Janani Luwum was the first sitting archbishop in the entire Anglican Communion to be martyred in office since Archbishops of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer and William Laud who were martyred in AD 1556 and AD 1645, respectively.
Luwum’s death inspired the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury Cathedral to establish a chapel to commemorate “Modern Martyrs.”

Canterbury Cathedral was hence the first ecclesiastical authority in the whole of the Anglican Communion to proclaim Archbishop Janani Luwum a 20th Century African Martyr.

According to Rev Jasper Tumuhimbise of All Saints Cathedral, Kampala, one of the starting points for this year’s walk to Namirembe, martyrdom gained a bad name for its association with violence and linkage to cruelty, manipulation and death.

But when we consider Christian martyrs like Luwum, we see something else. Instead of violence, there is peace and a seeking of reconciliation.

Instead of cruelty there is dignity and mercy. Instead of manipulation there is integrity. This is the ultimate martyrdom,” he said.  During similar 2015 celebrations, President Museveni declared February 16 an annual public holiday arguing that people should celebrate his life in the same manner as other Uganda Martyrs.

Life and ministry

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Rt. Rev. Janan Luwum installed Bishop on June 16, 1974. Credit: The New Vision/Files

Janani Luwum was born in 1922 in the Acholi district that time and spent his youth as a goat herder. Although he didn’t have a formal early education, he was given a belated opportunity to begin at school and quickly showed his resourcefulness and ability to learn.

His conversion to Christianity happened in 1948 while he was a teacher but would later quit teaching for evangelism. In 1949, he joined Bishop Usher Wilson Theological College, Buwalasi, to study theology. After a period as a lay preacher, he was ordained priest in 1956 of the then Upper Nile Diocese in St Phillips Church, Gulu and thereafter served as parish priest and chaplain in a number of parishes and church schools in Northern Uganda.

As Uganda gained independence from Britain, Luwum was noted as a rising indigenous leader in the church. He became bishop of the newly formed Diocese of Northern Uganda in 1969. Following his consecration, Janani was appointed to the Anglican Consultative Council and served on the Central Committee of the World Council of Churches.

In May 1974, Bishop Janani Luwum succeeded his mentor Archbishop Erica Sabiti, who had been the first Bishop of Kampala Diocese between 1972-1973. Thus, Bishop Janani Luwum became the second African Archbishop of the Province of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Boga-Zaire and the second Bishop of Kampala Diocese.

After his assassination, his body was taken to the Churchyard at Wii Gweng, Mucwini, on February 19, 1977 where he was later buried. He is survived by his widow, Mary Luwum, seven children, four sisters, two brothers and several grandchildren.

Exploring the Batwa identity, culture and livelihood in Uganda

BY ALEX TAREMWA

A Batwa legend might explain the lowly status of the people found in Uganda, eastern DRC, Rwanda and Burundi. A man, Kihanga, had three sons named Katutsi, Kahutu and Katwa. One day he called his three sons and gave each of them a gourd full of milk. On the next day, in the early morning, he asked them to give him back the gourds for him to place inside a shrine.

A sect of the Batwa in a food gathering process in the  Bwindi forests. Photo: Batwa experience

A sect of the Batwa in a food gathering process in the Bwindi forests. Photo: Batwa experience

Katutsi brought back his gourd and it was still full of milk; Kahutu’s receptacle was only half full while Katwa’s container was completely empty. He had drunk all the milk in the night. Their father then blessed each of his three sons based on how responsible they had been with the gourds of milk. Katutsi was blessed with all his father’s cows which would help him and his children to prosper for generations. Kahutu was blessed with a hoe and seeds which would help him to grow food in his lifetime and for generations to come after him. Katwa was given the forest and all that was in it; he was to survive by hunting and gathering.

Many generations passed and their descendants multiplied. The descendants of Katutsi and Kahutu became so many that they could no longer be satisfied with what they had and ended up encroaching on Katwa’s forest. In the end, they chased Katwa’s descendants from the forest and made them live as beggars and landless people. The fate of Katwa’s descendants in the legend mirrors their situation in real life.

In 1991, the Batwa in Uganda were evicted from the forests they had lived on since time immemorial.  As a result, most were left landless and impoverished and, to survive, resorted to begging and life as labourers on other people’s land.

As in the legend, originally the Batwa were forest dwelling hunter-gatherers, living and practising their cultural and economic way of life in the high mountainous forest areas around Lake Kivu in Rwanda and Lake Edward in the Great Lakes region of Central Africa; today, the Batwa way of life, their cultural, spiritual, and social traditions, are at risk.

After food gathering, an elderly woman returns home to prepare food. Photo: Batwa Experience

The Batwa History

The Batwa are widely accepted as the first inhabitants of the region, later joined by farmers and pastoralists. The Batwa are still to be found living in Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, with an estimated total population of 86,000 to 112,000.

As their traditional forested territories were destroyed by agriculturalists and pastoralists or gazetted as nature conservation areas, the Batwa were forced to abandon their traditional lifestyle based on hunting and gathering. The Batwa, sometimes derisively to as Pygmies, became squatters living on the edges of society; some were able to develop new means of survival as potters, dancers and entertainers.

The dominant ethnic groups in the region, the Bakiga and Bafumbira, perceive them as uncivilised because of their former hunter-gatherer lifestyle which has led to their discrimination and marginalisation from the mainstream economy. Notwithstanding the numerous problems faced by the Batwa, they continue to value their forest based social system, culture, and traditional practices as an important part of their identity.

This existence on the margins continues to this day. For instance, their customary rights to land have not been recognised and they have received little or no compensation for their losses. The Ugandan constitution provides for the protection of the rights of minorities, yet the situation that the Batwa are living in clearly indicates that their rights are being systematically violated. For example they not only lack access to the health services offered to other Ugandans by the government but also lack access to clean water, shelter, and food.

Not surprisingly, the Batwa have a high HIV prevalence but access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment for the Batwa is very hard. Not only do they have to walk for five kilometres (a long distance if you are terminally ill) and more to access them, but even when they reach the health centres, they are often segregated against by everyone, including the health care providers.

Accurate figures are difficult to determine and estimates vary, but the 2015 housing and population census showed that approximately 6,700 Batwa lived within the state of Uganda. They are mainly found in the south-west region in the districts of Kisoro, Kanungu, Kabale, Mbarara, Ntungamo and Lwengo (Katovu township).

An elderly Mutwa climbing a tree to harvest honey. Photo: Batwa Experience.

Not only is the discrimination institutional, it also extends to the social and quotidian. The Batwa are seen as backward and childish, incapable of speaking or representing themselves (the only minority group not represented in parliament). They are presumed to be thieves and are considered dirty, ignorant and immoral. Often they are not allowed to draw water from a communal well, and intermarriage with other ethnic groups is frowned upon.

Faced with all these prejudices, the formation of a Batwa advocacy group was long overdue. So In 2000,the Batwa formed United Organisation for Batwa Development in Uganda (UOBDU), an organisation which has mainly fought the dispossession of the Batwa from their ancestral land.

After the park creation in 1991, 82 percent of Batwa were left entirely landless, living either as squatters on private, government or church land. In 2004, 44 percent of Batwa had no land on which to build a hut. Data collected in 2007 by UOBDU show that the landless in Kisoro represent 50.4 percent, in Kabale 61.4 percent, in Kanungu 20.9 percent, while all of the households in Mbarara, Katovu and Ntungamo are landless.

The organisation has argued in the courts that the land for the national parks was unlawfully seized from the indigenous people, but the case is yet to be resolved.

Through UOBDU, the Batwa are fighting to secure land rights, the right to education and literacy, sustainable livelihoods, improved healthcare, and institutional development, says Elias Habyar’imana, the Chairperson of the Kisoro based NGO. To supplement all these efforts, their plight received international attention in 2014, when the Oscar-nominated documentary Virunga came out, exposing the existential threat they face.

The Batwa case before the Constitutional Court

On February 8, 2013, the Batwa of Uganda submitted a petition to the Constitutional Court of Uganda seeking recognition of their status as indigenous peoples under international law and redress for the historic marginalisation, dispossession and the human rights violations perpetrated against them. As I write this, the petition to the Constitutional Court of Uganda involving the Attorney General, the National Forest Authority and the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA) is yet to be heard in court.

The central issue for the Batwa is their land. To date, the revenues and employment opportunities arising from governmental exploitation of protected areas have not benefited the Batwa. Revenues generated from activities now taking place on the Batwa’s ancestral lands should go into a public purse. However, the Batwa have not seen any of these revenues.

Hunting was the primary source of food for the Batwa. Photo: Batwa Experience

While the courts drag their feet, the Batwa communities continue to suffer violence and discrimination from neighbouring ethnic groups. On Sunday June 7, 2014, Batwa communities in Ryabitukuru, Kisoro District, had their homes burned.

Out of the 14 households in the community, 13 were targeted, leaving many families destitute and homeless. The Batwa households are scattered over a large area of land, yet it took the violent mob only two hours to move from house to house.

Fearing for their lives, the Batwa fled to the Rubuguri Police Post for security. Because the post was small, the Batwa were shifted from there to an NGO building. It is from there that well wishers, including NGOs like UOBDU and Red Cross, have provided them with food, water, utensils, blankets and other amenities.

The Batwa Culture, Language and Livelihood

The Batwa are seen as shy, loyal to the traditional practices which define them as a forest people. Their Practices include hunting and gathering forest resources, eating uncooked food, worshipping gods in the forest, sleeping in caves, guiding forest researchers and tourists, dressing in leaves and animal skins, making fire using dry sticks. Caves, hot springs, rivers, hills, plants and animals are of special significance in their worldview.

The forests are a source of physical, emotional and spiritual well-being and before they were gazetted as national parks, the Batwa depended on forest resources for food, medicine, basketry, firewood, marketable items, house construction, tools, rituals, hunting and recreation.

During our interactions, the Batwa spoke fondly about their culture. Jovanisi Nyinakayanje, 42, who was born and raised in the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, spoke about knowing nothing else except these conditions: “I was born in the forest of Bwindi and spent about ten years there. My father used to go hunting and leave us with our mother who would go with us to collect fire wood (udukwi) and food (ibyokurya). Outside our home, we had a small hut for worshipping (uguterekerera) which was mainly done by our father who would sacrifice to the gods before and after hunting.”

After food gathering, an elderly woman returns home to prepare food. Photo: Batwa Experience

“When they chased us from the forest, we started living here in Rushaga. We would go back to the forest to look for meat, honey, wild yams, firewood, weaving materials and medicinal plants. But later, we were told to stop going back to the forest. Many of our people died. We tried hard to survive in the challenging village conditions by begging for food from Bakiga,” she spoke in her mother tongue as George Wilson Mpakasihe translated.

Reminiscing about growing up, Steven Serutoke, a guide on the Garama Batwa trail in Mgahinga, said, “When I was a little child, I used to see my parents going to the forest. They used to tell us nice stories about the forest. They told us how they used to eat honey and meat from the forest. They also told us that they used to shift to many places including Rwanda, Burundi and Congo especially when they had conflicts and when food became scarce.”

Housing and Burial arrangements

Traditionally, the Batwa had three main types of houses: caves, omuririmbo and ichuro. The caves and omuririmbo were the main houses where Batwa lived. Ichuro was used for resting and storing food including meat, honey, beans and sorghum, all of which in makeshift grass thatched round huts that can accommodate about five people at a time.

The Batwa also had a special way of burying the dead. When a Mutwa died, he or she would be buried in a hut after digging a small hole and wrapping the corpse in grass. The burial ceremony involved cleansing the corpse with herbs such as omuhanga (Maesa lanceolata), enkyerere (Rubus sp.), and omufumba (Rhumex sp).

The Batwa elders would lead the burial ceremony and encourage all the family members to drink herbal extracts as a way of preventing death from claiming more people from that family. After burial, they would migrate to a far off place and never return.

One of the Batwa huts set on fire in Kisoro. The Batwa are among the most marginalised and discrminated against minority groups in Africa. Photo: UOBDU

Marriage customs

According to Batwa customs, a Mutwa can not marry a non-Mutwa and getting pregnant before marriage was forbidden. Marriage was arranged by the parents. The parents of a Mutwa boy would admire qualities in a certain Mutwa girl and decide that she was the right partner for their son. They would then visit the girl’s family carrying gifts which included pots of honey from stingless bees, beer brewed with honey and roast meat.

During the visit, they would negotiate the dowry to be paid to the girl’s family and the date for the ‘give-away’ ceremony. On the day of ‘giving away’ the girl, the groom would bring many gifts for the bride and her family. Such gifts included beads, new and well-oiled animal skins, roast meat, elephant tusks, honey from stingless bees, beer brewed with honey and sometimes hunting dogs.

The groom would take the bride to his home and then live together while receiving advice from the groom’s parents. After some time, the young family would later migrate to a distant place to establish their new and independent home. When the woman became pregnant, she would be fed on meat, honey and vegetables and would drink many kinds of herbs for boosting her health and that of the unborn baby.

At the time of giving birth, she would be helped by other women who would use pieces of bamboo to cut the umbilical cord. The baby would be wrapped in clean animal skins and brought near a fire place for warmth.

This way of living is under threat or has already vanished. The Uganda Wildlife Authority continues to make millions from tourism annually on their land. For three decades, the Batwa have been struggling to have their rights recognised. The legal case is unlikely to succeed, so the Batwa remain stuck in a legal limbo with unpromising prospects.

This article was originally published in This is Africa (TIA), a leading forum for African opinion, arts and music available through the website thisisafrica.me, mobile phone apps and online radio channels.

You can’t ride a tiger forever. So why can’t the Big Man’s election campaign see that?

By Charles Onyango-Obbo
(Previously posted in The Daily Monitor)

I never expected we would see the level of violence and harassment against President Yoweri Museveni’s opponents that we are witnessing today again.

This is because, it is clear from past elections – and from the outcomes of the less violent 2011 poll – that brutality is a bad election cheating strategy.

There are a few other things that we know, of why historically violence had been seductive for the Museveni camp. As one observer said, in peasant societies, elections are viewed like a wrestling match in the village sand pit.

The one who floors his opponent is celebrated. The most violent campaign in Uganda, therefore, is likely to win by making rivals look weaker and, therefore, unworthy of being entrusted with national stewardship.

What is not clear is the Museveni camp’s end game. This will now be the fourth election in which violence is used to some degree or the other.

One thing is striking though. Every year, apart from FDC’s Kizza Besigye who has become the perennial target of the NRM political and security apparatus, the victims change.

With this election, the country is graduating its fourth class of victims of electoral violence beaten by people working in the president’s name. How does anyone expect that in five or 10 years, or even more, when NRM’s or Museveni’s rule must lose grip, that people who have endured violence for over 30 years will be part of anything but a violent regime change?

This should particularly be concerning, because just like the Walk-to-Work crackdown of 2011, and for this election season, the victims get younger and younger. Thus even if Museveni rules until he is 100 years old in 2044, some of these young people who are being beaten up by police for supporting Opposition politicians or attending their rallies, will only be 48, if they are 19 today.

Does anyone in the President’s palace think about these things? I believe they do. They are not fools. Question then is, why is this allowed to go on?

That is where it gets complicated. The President’s camp is obviously convinced that he would lose an election in which his opponents are able to run freely. We shall never know whether they are right, because that will probably never be tested under NRM rule.

But we know that buying votes, instead, creates less ill will than beating people into submission for it. That the incumbent and the partisan State doesn’t choose that option, isn’t because they don’t want or can’t afford to, but because they no longer have the structures to do it.

You see, if you shoot two Besigye or Amama supporters, you can intimidate a whole district and they will fear to vote against you. If you instead bribed the same two supporters with money, the district will not know.

In fact, if they are men, they will not even tell their wives.
So to buy votes, you need a sophisticated grassroots infrastructure that basically goes door to door. The decline of the Local Councils, and the failure to hold periodic elections, has undermined some of those grassroots things.

But State functionaries and the NRM are still able to put together a cash distribution network. However, vote buying runs into a second problem. Previous Museveni camps were plagued by his campaign team stealing the money.

There were jokes that to get work done, the President had to resort to keeping his campaign funds under the mattress in State House. In short, the old-fashioned vote buying option, even if it causes less enmity, is not available to Museveni because of corruption.

So corruption and creeping State failure, are undermining the patronage logic on which the current NRM rule is based, and making it difficult for it to buy votes.

Now, while you might need a network of 250,000 to distribute “logistics” nationally, if you can’t all you need is just 25 policemen. They can move those 25 men from town to town shooting opposition supporters, and strike enough fear in hearts to win elections.

In the process, Museveni is becoming the prisoner of the tiger. As the old story goes, once you ride it, for it not to bite you, you need to hold on and not fall off its back.
However, your success in holding on, doesn’t pay off in the long-term because the longer you hang on, the angrier the tiger becomes ensuring it will bite you more ferociously when you fall off.

I can’t comprehend that the Big Man’s camp doesn’t see that the current path is absolutely the worst possible way to secure one’s interest in the long-term. Actually, you don’t have to be smart to see that you can’t ride a tiger forever. You only need to be selfish enough.

Mr Onyango-Obbo is editor of Mail & Guardian AFRICA (mgafrica.com). 
Twitter:@cobbo3

Review: Betwixt Mountain and Wilderness

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Book review: Alex Taremwa Title: Betwixt Mountain and Wilderness Author: Timothy Wangusa Publishing Date: June 2015 Publisher: Nsemia Inc. Publishers, Oakville, Ontario, Canada Outlet: Aristoc Bookshop, Kampala Price: Shs20,000/=

Betwixt Mountain and Wilderness is the second novel of seasoned scholar and author Timothy Wangusa’s Mwambu trilogy.

It is therefore a sequel to the acclaimed Upon this Mountain set in pre-independence Uganda.

Launched on August 22 2015 at the closure of the 2nd East African Literary and Cultural Studies Conference, Betwixt Mountain and Wilderness is a story of an intensely sensitive, impressionable and introspective school leaver, who goes on a rather fascinat- ing journey of discovery.

Upon this Mountain takes the story of the protagonist, Mwambu, from breast-sucking to about age 20, the end of his high school.

This highly captivating and addictive piece of literary genius traces the troubled fortunes of the same protagonist from age 21 until when he is 32, on the very eve of Uganda’s acquisition of her independence.

It has been 25 years of Upon this Mountain, 25 years of intense suspense and 25 years of painstaking work on the author’s side who said in an interview with The Transparent Magazine that Betwixt Mountain and Wilderness is the best literary piece he will ever produce.

Prof Timothy Wangusa (Author) and the Transparent's Managing Editor Alex Taremwa recently. (Credit: Ivan Naijuka)

Prof Timothy Wangusa (Author) and The Transparent’s Managing Editor Alex Taremwa recently. (Credit: Ivan Naijuka)

For over 10 years, Wangusa has invested his best intuition and ingenuity into producing what will undoubtedly be a must- have item on every reader’s book shelf.

“Once upon a sunset, abrupt news leapt from hilltop to hilltop as fast as a black dog is famed to run,” it opens.

One is instantly intrigued into asking: What was the abrupt news? Where and why was that? To whom did it happen and who was there to report it?

I was inspired immediately, from the cover design to the prologue, I was already addicted that I was through the 204-page book in 24 hours.

My best passage in the book which I bet you will equally find fascinating comes soon between pages 15 and 17, in the second chapter as the Elgonton District committee members argue in utter ignorance about what a degree is.

This comes at a time when Mwambu is preparing to join Makerere on a village bursary scheme. It reads:

“What is Mwambu going to get from Makerere? I want to know if it is something good or just rubbish. Is it a decoration, a kyepe, a medal such as some of us got from the King African Rifles – KAR, popularly known as KEYA for distinguished service on the field of battle in the Second World War? Tell me, Mr. Chairman, what is this thing they call Diguli?”

Formerly Professor of Literature at Makerere University, Wangusa, PhD, is Presidential Advisor on Literary Affairs currently a Visiting Professor at Uganda Christian University and Vice Chairman of LuMasaaba Language Academy.

He is also co-writing the first LuMasaaba Dictionary. He posits that poetry is the “mother tongue of mankind”, while he perceives literature as a “verbal rendering of the human soul or community condition.”

WHY I LOVE MY JOB

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By Ruth Kobusinge Blessings

Working hard for something you do not care about is called stress; working hard for something you love is passion.

-Simon Sinek-

This morning I sat at the back of a fast moving Pajero land cruiser number plated UAA. I could not help but notice the amount of dust that had collected on the floor of this vehicle due to its hard work ferrying people and supplies to and fro Isingiro, month in month out, swiftly soaring on the bumpy, dusty roads of the matooke capital Isingiro.

As we hit the first hump, headed to the field (read Isingiro), the dust rose and I sneezed almost by default and that was quite irritating. I chose to ignore that since I had no other option but to bear the ride. I sat quietly as we proceeded and later caught myself thinking about the work I do that I have been actively doing since June 2015.

Without doubt, there are lots of things I love about my work and here I’ll share with you my top five;

  1. The opportunity to do what I love to; serve

I love what I do. I love Nutrition. I love education. I am passionate about seeing people healthy as they use the locally available foods, within their means to attain a good nutritional health status. This job gives me the opportunity to do the above and so much more.

Every opportunity to educate a mother best child care practices is golden and as I observe the smile on a healthy child’s face, I catch myself smiling. One amazing thing is that there is always something new to learn. It’s either a new word in the local dialect or a new variety of a local food or better still meeting new people and making new friends.

What could be better! I love the opportunity of making a difference, one person at a time.

2. The beauty of spending my day with wonderful people.

I really count myself blessed to work with such lovely people. Sometimes I wonder if my team is a humor club because every one of us has got something hilarious to share once we are together. One memorable moment was seeing my supervisor, a medical doctor, and three other colleagues peeping through the keyhole at my house in honor of a surprise birthday party for my recent birthday.

I was moved to tears by their sweet, kind and thoughtful gesture. Every opportunity to be with these guys, whether for official work or a social gathering outside office is worth looking forward to.

3. The travelling

If you asked me one thing I love doing, I would confidently say, travelling, and more specifically road trips. My kind of work in the community treats me to more road trips than I could ask for. A good week offers me at least four road trips to and fro Isingiro all the while enjoying the beautiful scenery of the rolling hills and endless green matooke plantations.

Sometimes, it is pretty tiring especially after a good days’ work, but still worthwhile. It is on such days that I opt to take a nap on the way back to Mbarara. Don’t ask me how I manage to sleep off on a dusty, bumpy road. It is called acclimatization.

There is no room for boredom with such travels as opposed to having a white collar job and spending my working hours interacting with a computer. Interestingly, even after a whole year of travelling on these winding roads, only comparable to rollercoaster tracks, I still can’t tell which is which as all roads here look the same, and are surrounded by large matooke plantations.

Welcome to the Matooke Republic Uganda! Welcome to the capital of the Matooke Republic, Isingiro!

4. The Daily Adventure and Sight Seeing

I can’t trade this daily adventure for anything!

Isingiro is a lovely district in the Western part of Uganda, the pearl of Africa. The rolling hills, the bottomless valleys, the winding roads, the green matooke covered hillsides, the thousands of trees covering the hills, the bright yellow blossoms, the purple flowers covering the potato gardens, the list is endless.

Some working days are like picnics on the hillsides as I admire the valleyed covered by shrubs. A number of days are accentuated by a hot afternoon meal of mashed green bananas, maize bread, commonly known as posho and goat’s meat at Nalongo’s restaurant.

 For me, work is not just work, it is an enjoyable adventure, all week through

5. The Rewards

I did not write money. I had to look for a better word-money is belittling in a way. No doubt, money is very important and it is a good reward for good work, but there is so much more out of this work. I get a decent pay and I am happy with what I do.

A saying goes, ’Love what you do, do it with passion. Work hard and never give up. Money and Happiness will find you. The opportunity to attain a world class experience, exposure to a multi-cultural working environment, an opportunity to build my network, thus my net worth (quoting Elon Kay; “Your network is your net worth,”) experiencing daily life changing challenges and lessons as I go about my work.

Class is everywhere and everyone is a teacher, everything is a learning aid. Did I mention that I love the waffles (read Wi-Fi) at office. My ingenuity has been tickled by simple, yet challenging discussions I have had with colleagues over a cup of nice coffee in the office kitchenette.

What can I say, I surely have more than enough reason to wake up every day, with enthusiasm, prepare for work with thanks giving and go about my day giving my best to all I do to the glory of my Creator that has given me the privilege of being a coworker with Him.

Salaries for sitting African presidents

By Africa Review correspondents, Mail & Guardian Africa & World Bank Group.

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When Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari recently announced that he and his deputy would take a pay cut, it was not entirely surprising for a man known for his austerity, and who faces a challenge cutting back the excesses in the country’s FINANCES.

But President Buhari is not the first African leader to announce a pay cut. In fact, it is a popular recourse for others trying to shore up their popularity, or facing tough economic times.

In Kenya, President Uhuru Kenyatta and his deputy William Ruto last year announced a voluntary 20 per cent salary cut and invited other top government officials to follow suit. A few did, reluctantly.

In Tunisia, former President Moncef Marzouki, then facing an economic crisis in the post-revolution period, announced a two-thirds pay cut, slicing his annual pay from around $176,868 (Ksh 17m) to ‘just’ $58,956 (Ksh5.8m).

The Africa Review has compiled and analysed salaries of African leaders to try and see what they tell about the relationship between those in power and the governed. The search shows that only a few countries make public what they pay their leaders – a key finding itself that suggests a lack of transparency.

In many African countries, the first thing leaders do when they come into power is to increase their pay: In Egypt, for instance, the president’s pay shot up from a paltry $280 per month, put in place by the austere Mohammed Morsy administration, to $5,900 (Ksh584,000) per month just before General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi predictably won election.

In other countries, leaders take a disproportionate share of the national income for their personal use. In Morocco, the Treasury spends, by one account, $1 million a day on King Mohammed VI’s 12 royal palaces and 30 private residences. That is on top of $7.7 million spent on an entourage of royal automobiles, and a monthly salary of $40,000 (Ksh4m) paid to the monarch.

In 2014, King Mswati of Swaziland increased his personal budget, which includes his salary and the welfare of his extensive family, by 10 per cent to $61 million, a significant chunk of the kingdom’s overall budget. As the royal budget isn’t debated or passed by Parliament, it automatically became law.

Some presidents have deceptively small salaries but have, personally or through family members, massive control over their countries’ resources.

For example, President Eduardo dos Santos has a modest monthly salary of $5,000 (Ksh500,000) but is widely believed to control a lot of the wealth produced from Angola’s oil-industry, and his family members own some of the biggest enterprises in the country.

The Africa Review was unable to establish the official salary for Teodoro Obiang’ Nguema Mbasogo, the long-serving president of the oil-rich Equatorial Guinea, but it probably doesn’t matter.

With vast oil wealth and a population of less than a million, Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world and should be a first-world nation. Instead, most of its wealth ends up in the hands of its notoriously corrupt First Family.

As an example, the US Department of Justice, in an indictment of the younger Teodoro Nguema Obiang’ Mangue, said the first son had spent about $315 million on property and luxury goods between 2004 and 2011, despite his job as a government minister paying less than $100,000 per year.

However, not all African leaders are money-grabbing, power-hungry brutes. In April 2015 Cape Verde President João Carlos Fonseca vetoed – for the fourth time, no less – a Bill that would, among other things, have increased his salary and that of other political officials.

The highest-paid leader, the research could find, is Paul Biya, whose $610,000 (Ksh61m) annual salary is almost three times that of South Africa’s Jacob Zuma, despite the South African economy being 10 times bigger than Cameroon’s.

Rather than simply rank the leaders based on absolute figures, The Africa Review decided to compare their gross annual salaries with the Gross National Income of their countries – basically comparing the leader’s pay with what their nationals, on average, earn.

Unsurprisingly, President Biya comes out on top again, earning 229 times what an average Cameroonian earns, followed by Liberia where President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf earns 113 times what her average citizen does.

Although Somalia’s President Hassan Sheikh Mohamoud makes the top 10 with his annual salary of $120,000 (Ksh12m), the country is excluded from the comparative study due to the lack of verifiable GNI per capita figures.

Overall, it appears that leaders of poor countries tend to pay themselves more than those in higher-income countries.

Robotization; Evidence of the 4th Industrial revolution

By Kiberu Malik

Since the 1700s, the industry has under gone so far 4 major industrial revolutions. These were the 1760 industrial turnover that saw the introduction introduction of water steam powered mechanical manufacturing and development of machine tools and change of wood and other bio-fuel to coal and this resulted into the first steam engine made of iron and fueled primarily by coal in Great Britain.

Then there was another in 1840 known as the techinology revolution it involved introdution of electrically powered mass production. Build of railroads and large scale iron and steel production this revolution rapidly developed in Germany and United States.  A century later in 1950s, industry went through the 3rd revolution which was named as the digital revolution. This involved the change from analog technology to digital techinology. This involved use of electronics and IT to achive using of digital computing this included digital cellular phone, digital format of optical compact disc supplanted analog format such as Vinyl Records and Cassatte tapes.

Subsequently,  this brings me to the 4th Industrial revolution Known as Industry 4.0 and the rise of sopshiscatted human robots. The 4th revolution based on the techinological concept of CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEM known as the internet of things and internet of service. We are currently at the beginning of the 4th industrial revolution and the cyber physcial system.

This is known as the smart factory. In United States the SMART MANIFACTURING LEADERSHIP COALITION (SMLC) started this initiative. The 4th revolution is just starting and its climax will shift the MAN TO MACHINE TO MACHINE TO MACHINE commonly known as M2M process . This involves machines building other machines robots are used to build machines through a network of internts and the vision of industry 4.0 is to bring internet to the lowest level of human beings.

Industry 4.0 is characterised by strong customization of productions under the conditions of high flexibilized mass production. This automation technology is improved by the introduction by the introduction of methods of self optimization, self configuration and self Diagnosis. The current biggest project at this time is the BMBF leading edge.

INDUSTRY 4.0 AND MACHINE TO MACHINE(M2M) refers to technology that allows both wireless and wired system of communication with other device of the same type. However modern M2M communication has expanded beyond one to one and changed into a system of network that tramsmits data to personal appliance. M2M was originally used to automation and instrumentation but now its even used to refer to TELEMATIC application.

Under M2M. The machine are to detect the fault and fix it instantly and it can detect that a wrong is about to happen and prevent it immediately.  In industry 4.0. M2M has a total volume of 300billions dollars at the automation market. Using of the M2M in industry 4.0 will account for 27% of the 3.88 trillion dollars. And a sum of 675bn USD will result from the improvement of assest management.

And 1.5 trillion USD is expected through reduction of all form of waste even the waste of time by embedding M2M communication in the INDUSTRY 4.0.

INDUSTRY 4.0 AND THE NEW PHASE OF ROBOTS AND ROBO-THINGS:

The word robot has a Czech origin it was used in a science fiction play in 1920 where it referred to human clones that were raised to work. In many 2014 MARIEKE BLON CHIEF OF ECONOMIST OF ING BANK stated robot refer to every reduction of human labour with all corresponding digital techinology.

Today Robots are present in large number only in industry. Industry without robots is now almost inconceivable. They do everything covered by the three Ds; Dirty, Dangerous, and Dull work. Robots do it tirelessly and there is no doubt that they work better than human beings.

1961 General motors(US). Deloyed its very first industrial robot the first unimate model weight 1.8tons. More than 50years laters in 2013 almost 162.000 robots were sold worldwide and in 2015 more than 1.5m robots will be in use. Its expected 2013 and 2016 around 95.000 new generation robots will be sold with a total value of 14b USD. At present traditional industrial robots are involved into assistant to human in accordence with the vision of industry 4.0.

Currently RoboEarth is building an internet for robots and via industrial ip advantage. This justies the conclusion that intelligent robots and robothings will soon become a genuire force in society and will cooperate with human this includes self driving cars as swarm bolts. At the need of the 22nd century the 4th revolution will be at its pink however currently at its start with the movies you watch e.g iron man transformers its simply activation of the 4th industrial revolution to the world.

The 4th industrial revolution is one of the agenda of the NEW WORLD ORDER and SUPREMANCY OF MACHINES. Where machines will control the world over humans. The religious believers will interpret the industry 4.0 is one of the things which will cause the end of the world and the human race according to thier religious books like Quran and Bible because these books talk about such a process were the human race will be ended.

The NEW WORLD ODER predicts the coming of the 5th industrial revolution which will involve total replacing of human race with machines were human will be doing absolutely nothing in the industry world and in the 5th revolution USA will be estimated to have 1million army robots with a four structures i.e head,hands,legs and waist to reduce the number of human army soliders.

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