Time line of events in DR Congo

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1994. Uganda backed Tutsi RPF rebels overthrow the Hutu government of Rwanda led president Habyarimana sparking off genocide that claimed 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutus. This resulted into fleeing of over one million Hutus to Eastern Zaire (now DR Congo)

1997. President Sese Seko Mobutu of Zaire is overthrown by Laurent Kabila with his Alliance des Forces Democratiques pour la Liberation du Congo-Zaire (AFDL) backed by Uganda and Rwanda. Mobutu who became president in 1965 has ruled for 32 years. Zaire was renamed DR Congo.

1997-1999. Rwanda-Uganda and Laurent Kabila relations sour. Rwanda and Uganda re-enter DR Congo and try to overthrow Laurent Kabira. He is saved by intervention of Namibia, Angola and Zimbabwe. The standoff gave way to Lusaka Accord that called for cease fire and withdrawal of all foreign troops in DR Congo in favour of UN peace keeping force. Some countries however violate the terms and keep armies in the country.

2000. Uganda and Rwanda armies clash over control of Kisangani. The clash leaves a number of Congolese civilians and soldiers from both countries dead, rendering useless the Lusaka Accord that had been signed the previous year.

2001. President Laurent Kabila is assassinated by his body guard. His son Joseph Kabira takes over as the interim president.

2006. Joseph Kabila is formally elected president

2011. Joseph Kabila is re-elected for the second tern

Since 1994 various militia and rebel forces have operated in Eastern DR Congo

  • The Interahamwe militia of ethnic Hutus, mostly from Rwanda fighting the Tutsi-dominated Government of Rwanda
  • Hutu members of the former Rwandan Armed Forces, believed to be responsible for the 1994 genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda, which also fought the Government of Rwanda;
  • The Mai Mai, a loose association of traditional Congolese local defense forces, which fought the influx of Rwandan immigrants.
  • The Allied of Democratic Forces (ADF), made of up Ugandan expatriates and supported by the Government of Sudan, which fought the Government of Uganda
  • Several groups of Hutus from Burundi fighting the Tutsi-dominated Government of Burundi.
  • Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie (RCD)
  • Mouvement pour la Liberation du Congo (MLC)
  • National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP) led by Gen Bosco Ntaganda.
  • M23 led by Col. Sultan Makanga, that has captured large parts of Eastern Congo and now threatening to take over Goma Town 
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